France’s beaches have been inundated by lethal slime with what experts say has the potential to kill sunbathers within seconds.
Fears have heightened and six beaches were closed this summer in Brittany as the “killer slime” took over the vacation destination, the Guardian reported.
“It’s a shame this place has come to be associated with death,” said André Ollivro, an environmental activist who warned that large amounts of green algae on the beaches can “kill you in seconds.”
Piles of toxic algae have covered the shore on the northern coast near Saint-Brieuc due to the over-fertilization of nearby fields draining into the ocean, according to the news outlet.
The sludge, which releases poisonous hydrogen sulfide gases that can lead to loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest, has washed up on the shores for decades, but environmentalists say that the problem has worsened this summer due to “exceptional” weather, according to France 24.
“The influx of green algae began very early, there were few storms and June was a relatively wet month, which caused more water to flow from agricultural areas and thus more green algae,” a spokesperson for the Saint-Brieuc town hall told the outlet.
At least two people and dozens of animals have died from inhaling the toxic fumes in the area, though some warn the cases don’t reveal the full scope.
Why are all these boats catching fire and sinking? Couldn’t be to cover up some drug running.
The U.S. Coast Guard is searching for four missing crew members of a cargo ship that capsized and caught fire early Sunday morning near Brunswick, Georgia.
At approximately 2 a.m. ET, Coast Guard Sector Charleston was alerted that motor vessel Golden Ray had capsized in St. Simons Sound, a bay in Brunswick, according to a press release from the Coast Guard.
Multiple Coast Guard resources were deployed to the scene, and 20 people were safely removed, the press release stated. Four remained missing as of 11 a.m. ET.
The ship, which the Coast Guard described as “on fire” and could be seen in photos generating smoke, has a crew of 24 people — 23 crew members and one pilot. The Golden Ray is 656-feet-long and 106-feet-wide.
During a press conference Sunday afternoon, officials said rescue efforts underway, but it was determined going inside the ship to rescue the remaining four people was too risky. Authorities said they would resume their attempts to enter the ship and search for the four missing people once the vessel was stabilized.
Several local agencies were assisting the Coast Guard in its search for the missing crew members, including the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Moran Towing, SeaTow, Brunswick Bar Pilots Association, and the Glynn County Fire Department.
“We greatly appreciate the immediate response of the US Coast Guard, who are leading the search and rescue,” Griffith V. Lynch, executive director of the Georgia Ports Authority, said.
The ship had just departed Colonels Island Terminal when it capsized.
I’m starting a sting of these video’s to re-post from all over the place
When I come accross one I’m going to Title the first part Abortion video – and then where ever it was titled.
Published on Sep 8, 2019
Next stop: the Supreme Court
The High Court has rejected a legal challenge brought by prominent campaigner Gina Miller over Boris Johnson’s plan to suspend parliament for five weeks in the run-up to Brexit.
Miller, who is represented by Mishcon de Reya and Blackstone Chambers‘ Lord Pannick QC, had made an urgent application to the High Court for a judicial review of Johnson’s decision. The prominent pro-Remainer was later joined by former Prime Minister Sir John Major, among others.
In a ruling this morning by three senior judges — Lord Burnett of Maldon, Sir Terence Etherton and Dame Victoria Sharp — Johnson was found to have not acted unlawfully. However, the High Court did grant permission for the case to go the Supreme Court for an appeal, which will be heard on 17 September.
Reacting to the High Court’s ruling, Miller said:
“We feel strongly that parliamentary sovereignty is fundamental to the stability and future of our country and is therefore worth fighting to defend. As our politics becomes more chaotic on a daily basis, the more vital it is that parliament is sitting.”
Miller, who launched a crowdfunding appeal to help fund the legal challenge, used the same Mishcon-Blackstone team when, in 2017, she won a legal case forcing parliament to legislate before Article 50 could be invoked.
The defeat comes just days after a cross-party group of MPs and peers lost a similar legal challenge in the Scottish courts. Lord Doherty, sitting in the Court of Session in Edinburgh, ruled that Boris’ decision was one for voters and politicians, and not the courts.
We developed a data-driven modeling approach to spatially quantify global N weathering fluxes. Our model incorporates topographic, climatological, and lithological factors to estimate N denudation and chemical weathering rates, and it is calibrated using solute sodium (Na+) fluxes from 106 large river basins across Earth (30). It differs from previous approaches in that we rely on machine-learning algorithms, quantile regression, and Monte Carlo simulations, as opposed to the more classical mean-field parameterization schemes. We applied our model at 1-km2-grid scales, using mass-balance equations developed at hillslope to small basin scales (31). The conservation-of-mass equations used in our model take the formDN,Na = (QD)(ρ)([N, Na]rock)(1)(2)WNa = (DNa)(CDFNa)(3)WN = (DN)(fOM-N)(CDForg-N) + (DN)(1 – fOM-N)(CDFNa)(4)where DN,Na (mass × length−2 × time−1) is the element-specific (N or Na+) denudation flux, QD is the denudation rate (length × time−1), ρ is rock density (mass × length−3), and [N, Na]rock is the element-specific concentration in rock (mass × mass−1). Chemical depletion of Na+ from silicate rocks (CDFNa) is applied to both Na+ and N weathering functions (section 3 of the supplementary materials). W (mass × length−2 × time−1) is the element-specific (N or Na+) chemical weathering flux, and fOM-N (dimensionless) is the fraction of total rock N in organic forms.
Briefly, our model relies on Monte Carlo methods to estimate probability values for QD, [N,Na]rock, and CDFNa, with 10,000 simulations per parameter per cell. We calibrated the model by minimizing residuals between the modeled and empirically observed basin-scale Na+ training set (WNa). We estimated denudation (QD) by using a statistical model that incorporates catchment-scale CRN denudation rates (32) and digital topography. Rock N and Na+ concentrations ([N]rock and [Na]rock) were derived from our synthesis of measurements (11) and the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical database, respectively (33). We used a generalized additive model to estimate the chemical depletion fraction (CDFNa). The factors in the model include topographic relief, evapotranspiration, and excess water (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) (supplementary materials). We parameterized the CDF model by using 41 separate observations of soil Na+ depletion rates collected from the primary literature (section 3 of the supplementary materials).
These simplifying assumptions capture generalized patterns of chemical weathering rates as a function of climate and topographic relief, as calibrated with salt-corrected riverine Na+ fluxes to the ocean (tables S5 and S6). The model’s reliance on soil-based chemical depletion rates is limited in low-relief landscapes, in areas where subwatershed measurements may be decoupled from larger-scale fluxes, and in recently deglaciated terrains (28). Yet our simulations are consistent with general global observations of soil development and weathering patterns (figs. S3 and S4) and the anticipated switch from supply-limited to transport-limited kinetics in chemical weathering that has been observed for high-relief landscapes (34). Further, total rock denudation rates predicted by our model (46 to 61 Pg year−1) fall within the range of previous studies [20 to 64 Pg year−1 (25)].
At the global scale, our model simulates a large N denudation flux, consistent with cases 1 and 2. Specifically, we estimate that ~19 to 31 Tg N year−1 is denuded from the land-surface environment, with a chemical weathering flux of 11 to 18 Tg N year−1 (Table 1 and Fig. 2B). These results suggest that ~40 to 60% of rock N is chemically released to the terrestrial surface environment before export, consistent with field studies of mineral N depletion rates in mountainous areas (29); that is, ~50% of rock nitrogen is lost to physical erosion without entering terrestrial ecosystem pools in situ. We do not consider the fate of such physically eroded N in downslope ecosystems, which would likely increase the global N weathering flux in low-relief environments.
The scaled-up spatial N chemical weathering flux corresponds well with mean-field geochemical proxies (Table 1). Furthermore, our geospatial model indicates that as much as ~65% (7 to 12 Tg N year−1) of the total rock N chemical flux is derived from organic N, similar to the FOM-based estimates (5 to 12 Tg N year−1; Table 1). These results appear reasonable given our limited understanding of differences in weathering processes among FOM and silicate rocks.
Across the land surface, rock N weathering is relatively widespread, with variations in N geochemistry, relief, and climate determining the magnitude of rock N inputs to terrestrial ecosystems (Fig. 2B). For example, large areas of Africa are devoid of N-rich bedrock and have relatively low relief and arid climate conditions, which together substantially limit N weathering fluxes. In contrast, some of the highest rock N inputs are estimated for the northern latitudes (Fig. 2B), where N-rich rocks and high-relief landscapes are more prevalent. At regional scales, mountainous regions with high uplift and adequate moisture—for example, the Himalaya and Andes mountains—are estimated to be large sources of N weathering inputs to land-surface environments, similar to the importance of these regions to global weathering rates and climate (35).
The body of evidence points to substantial rock N denudation and weathering rates at regional to global scales. Although each of our approaches is rooted in mass-balance principles, the diversity of techniques confers a reasonable degree of independence among the case studies (table S1); this adds robustness to the working conclusion of widespread rock N inputs in terrestrial surface ecosystems. Our geospatial model provides the most direct and geographically rich set of predictions, with the global range in fluxes largely driven by the calibration approach (basin- versus global-scale; supplementary materials). Results from the other case studies overlap with the spatial model, and we make conservative assumptions about rock N weathering rates in general (table S1). Future work could therefore cause the case studies to diverge, but with a tendency toward higher rather than lower overall rock N fluxes. We conclude that our findings extend previous plot-scale evidence for rock N weathering inputs in select ecosystems to a global biogeochemical paradigm, and that they indicate considerable limitations in contemporary models, which exclude the role of rock N sources in governing global-scale patterns of terrestrial N availability.
To further examine the importance of rock N weathering vis-à-vis the terrestrial N balance, we compare our geospatial model estimates with N fixation and deposition inputs to natural biomes (i.e., nonagrarian areas; Fig. 2C and Table 2). Isotopically constrained global terrestrial N fixation varies from 58 to 100 Tg N year−1 (36), with N deposition rates in preindustrial and modern nonagrarian environments varying from 11 to between 30 and 34 Tg N year−1, respectively (37, 38). Thus, although anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased global N inputs through deposition, nearly half of this input is in agricultural and urban landscapes where rock is not likely to be a substantial component of ecosystem N cycling (table S6).
Our findings for rock N weathering rates increase the preindustrial terrestrial nitrogen budget by 8 to 26% (Table 2), with a modern-day rock N contribution to natural systems of 6 to 17% of total N inputs. These calculations point to rock inputs increasing the mean (midpoint) global N budget by 17 and 11% for preindustrial and modern periods, respectively, with more pronounced effects at the biome and regional scales.
Our results show that rock N inputs may be particularly important in montane ecosystems where denudation rates are rapid (Fig. 2C) and high-latitude ecosystems where high biological N fixation rates are temperature-limited (39). Spatially, our analysis suggests that rock N inputs can account for a substantial fraction of modern N inputs (including anthropogenic N deposition) to temperate and montane grasslands (8 to 32%), temperate and boreal forests (9 to 38%), tundra (23 to 51%), deserts (11 to 23%), and Mediterranean shrub- and woodlands (9 to 22%) (Table 2 and table S6). In contrast, rock N inputs constitute a substantially smaller fraction of N inputs to tropical grasslands (2 to 8%) and tropical forests (4 to 12%), where weathering is supply-limited and N fixation rates are naturally high.
Where N weathering occurs deep beneath the soil and regolith, some or all of the N may be released to groundwater and transported to fluvial systems (40–42). Under this scenario, the ability of terrestrial plant communities to use deeply weathered N is dependent on plant-root proliferation into the deep subsurface (i.e., the depth of the critical zone). Woody plants can effectively penetrate deep regolith, with roots extending tens of meters below the terrestrial surface, in environments ranging from deserts to rainforests (43). Inferential work has pointed to the high mobility of rock N in ecosystems, which can be depleted from minerals at rates that exceed Na+ and K+ release from silicates (29). The role of microbes may be particularly important in this regard; so-called “rock-eating” fungi can accelerate weathering rates of minerals harboring biologically important nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), K+, and Ca2+ (44, 45).
Lastly, the availability of N singly and in combination with P profoundly limits terrestrial C storage, with nontrivial effects on global climate change (4, 46). Our previous work demonstrated a doubling of ecosystem C storage among temperate conifer forests residing on N-rich bedrock (7). Our model indicates that rock N inputs could make up >29% of total N inputs to boreal forests, which could help to explain the high C uptake capacity observed for this biome and partially mitigate the mismatch of C and N budgets in Earth system models (3). Historically, weathering has been viewed as responsive to CO2 enrichment and climate change over deep geological time (millions of years) (35). The direct connections that we draw between tectonic uplift, N inputs, and weathering reactions therefore emphasize a role for rock-derived nutrients in affecting the 21st-century C cycle and climate system.
Who were the two women? Where were they from?
(CNN)Signe Swenson, a former development associate and alumni coordinator at the MIT media lab, told CNN on Saturday that she repeatedly expressed concern about MIT’s ties to Jeffrey Epstein, but the lab’s leadership made it clear that his donations were to be kept secret.