Abortion – is not just murder it’s just too evil to believe – organ harvesting

September 8, 2019

 

 

https://www.infowarsmedia.com/js/player.js

 

 

REAL LIFE HORROR! Abortionists Admit To Keeping Babies Alive To Harvest Organs FULL SHOW 9/8/2019
2‚605 views

Published on Sep 09, 2019

 

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Killing waters – green slime – algae

September 8, 2019

 

Killer slime that can ‘kill you in seconds’ taking over France’s beaches

 

France’s beaches have been inundated by lethal slime with what experts say has the potential to kill sunbathers within seconds.

Fears have heightened and six beaches were closed this summer in Brittany as the “killer slime” took over the vacation destination, the Guardian reported.

“It’s a shame this place has come to be associated with death,” said André Ollivro, an environmental activist who warned that large amounts of green algae on the beaches can “kill you in seconds.”

Piles of toxic algae have covered the shore on the northern coast near Saint-Brieuc due to the over-fertilization of nearby fields draining into the ocean, according to the news outlet.

The sludge, which releases poisonous hydrogen sulfide gases that can lead to loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest, has washed up on the shores for decades, but environmentalists say that the problem has worsened this summer due to “exceptional” weather, according to France 24.

“The influx of green algae began very early, there were few storms and June was a relatively wet month, which caused more water to flow from agricultural areas and thus more green algae,” a spokesperson for the Saint-Brieuc town hall told the outlet.

At least two people and dozens of animals have died from inhaling the toxic fumes in the area, though some warn the cases don’t reveal the full scope.

 

Cont’d

https://nypost.com/2019/09/08/killer-slime-that-can-kill-you-in-seconds-taking-over-frances-beaches/


Breaking – Ship on fire – near Georgia

September 8, 2019

Why are all these boats catching fire and sinking? Couldn’t be to cover up some drug running.

Massive cargo ship capsizes and catches fire near Georgia, Coast Guard search for crew

Four crew members of the Golden Ray, on its side in St. Simon Sound off the coast of Brunswick, Georgia, were still unaccounted for.
By Kalhan Rosenblatt

The U.S. Coast Guard is searching for four missing crew members of a cargo ship that capsized and caught fire early Sunday morning near Brunswick, Georgia.

Image: A cargo ship overturned near Brunswick, Ga., on Sept. 8, 2019.
A cargo ship overturned near Brunswick, Ga., on Sept. 8, 2019.U.S. Coast Guard

At approximately 2 a.m. ET, Coast Guard Sector Charleston was alerted that motor vessel Golden Ray had capsized in St. Simons Sound, a bay in Brunswick, according to a press release from the Coast Guard.

Multiple Coast Guard resources were deployed to the scene, and 20 people were safely removed, the press release stated. Four remained missing as of 11 a.m. ET.

USCGSoutheast

@USCGSoutheast

Evacuations of the Golden Ray’s crew continue. All vessel traffic in the Port of Brunswick is currently suspended unless approved by the @USCG Captain of the Port.

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136 people are talking about this

The ship, which the Coast Guard described as “on fire” and could be seen in photos generating smoke, has a crew of 24 people — 23 crew members and one pilot. The Golden Ray is 656-feet-long and 106-feet-wide.

During a press conference Sunday afternoon, officials said rescue efforts underway, but it was determined going inside the ship to rescue the remaining four people was too risky. Authorities said they would resume their attempts to enter the ship and search for the four missing people once the vessel was stabilized.

Several local agencies were assisting the Coast Guard in its search for the missing crew members, including the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Moran Towing, SeaTow, Brunswick Bar Pilots Association, and the Glynn County Fire Department.

 

“We greatly appreciate the immediate response of the US Coast Guard, who are leading the search and rescue,” Griffith V. Lynch, executive director of the Georgia Ports Authority, said.

The ship had just departed Colonels Island Terminal when it capsized.

Image: A cargo ship overturned near Brunswick, Ga., on Sept. 8, 2019.
A cargo ship overturned near Brunswick, Ga., on Sept. 8, 2019.WTLV

cont’d
https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/massive-cargo-ship-capsizes-catches-fire-near-georgia-coast-guard-n1051201?cid=sm_npd_nn_tw_ma


Abortion video – Cognitive Dissonance 101 – Liberty Hangout

September 8, 2019

I’m starting a sting of these video’s to re-post from all over the place

When I come accross one I’m going to Title the first part Abortion video – and then where ever it was titled.

 

 

 

Published on Sep 8, 2019

SUBSCRIBED 297K

A lesson on cognitive dissonance SUBSCRIBE TO KAITLIN’S CHANNEL: https://www.YouTube.com/KaitlinBennett95 [SUPPORT KAITLIN ON PATREON] https://www.patreon.com/KaitlinBennett Thanks to Luis Albert, Jesse Larson, Jim Robertson, Camo4x4s, Andrew Conklin, Frank Conetto, and Brandi B for your continued support. Become a patron at the 308 Tier to see your name here too! [SUPPORT LIBERTY HANGOUT] Store: https://bit.ly/2Q60nuZ Patreon: http://bit.ly/2rE5ent Facebook: http://bit.ly/2lYcxEK Twitter: http://bit.ly/2mfWdl

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Liberty Hangout
Like these videos? Support Kaitlin on Patreon so she can do interviews in your city next! https://www.patreon.com/KaitlinBennett

96

Unknown Username
It’s because far left ideology amongst other things is about not taking responsibility 😐

121

James H
I can’t wait to vote Trump 2020 and melt some more snowflakes

218

LabbyShepherd Puppy
“Living in poverty is WORSE than dying” Then let’s nuke all the developing countries and the lower class/homeless!

91

Mitchell Scott
“I feel like” was the gist of his argument. To his credit at least he didn’t come across as a cowardly raving lunatic which seems to be bulk of the radical left.

98

Anglomik
“Living in poverty is worse than dying.” So very glad that my ancestors didn’t feel that way. Sounds like civilization has warped the minds of the entitled.

86

Joseph Beck-Melendez
You can tell this guy in the “equality” shirt had way more than his fair share of soy over the years😥

38

Purple Heart Scott
Apparently, what libs “feel” is more important than facts. Truth is irrelevant to these folks.

25

Roberto Mundo
I want equality! If women can kill them, men should have the right not to pay for them! Lol

43

JUSTICIA VERDADERA
“I feel like….” infamous quote of liberals.

19

Lori Gustin
Living in poverty is worse than dying? I grew up very very poor but we were happy. Only a person that is privileged and entitled would say something that insane and Evil

20

Alexis McPherson
This was one of the most productive conversations ive seen on this channel.

15

C.Casey
Kaitlyn is so logical and quick that unless you’re 100% honest or at least 100% true to your own conscience, she nails you to the wall very, very fast. Go Kaitlyn

24

Dylan Q
I literally died before birth, had to be cut out and I’m doing ok 👌🏽 #deathoverpoverty

11

wydopnthrtl
Prime example of a young man who does NOT know God or His principals. What comes to my mind is the city of nineveh. They don’t know their left from their right.

15

up you're ass and to the left!
Baby Lives Matter! Triggered? My gun has a trigger! I carry🖕it’s fully loaded!

Read more

16

whatsup
DANNNNGGGGGG lol this girl knows how to debate!!! Lol! Tucker Carlsen could learn a thing or 2 from this chick. Legendary!!

14

RICKY RICHARDS
“Thou shalt NOT murder.” Commandment #6

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Brexit still on – High court rejects bids to stop it

September 8, 2019

Gina Miller loses High Court bid to stop Boris Johnson suspending parliament

By 

22

Next stop: the Supreme Court

Gina Miller — Credit: BBC News

The High Court has rejected a legal challenge brought by prominent campaigner Gina Miller over Boris Johnson’s plan to suspend parliament for five weeks in the run-up to Brexit.

Miller, who is represented by Mishcon de Reya and Blackstone Chambers‘ Lord Pannick QC, had made an urgent application to the High Court for a judicial review of Johnson’s decision. The prominent pro-Remainer was later joined by former Prime Minister Sir John Major, among others.

In a ruling this morning by three senior judges — Lord Burnett of Maldon, Sir Terence Etherton and Dame Victoria Sharp — Johnson was found to have not acted unlawfully. However, the High Court did grant permission for the case to go the Supreme Court for an appeal, which will be heard on 17 September.

The 2020 Legal Cheek Firms Most List

Reacting to the High Court’s ruling, Miller said:

“We feel strongly that parliamentary sovereignty is fundamental to the stability and future of our country and is therefore worth fighting to defend. As our politics becomes more chaotic on a daily basis, the more vital it is that parliament is sitting.”

Miller, who launched a crowdfunding appeal to help fund the legal challenge, used the same Mishcon-Blackstone team when, in 2017, she won a legal case forcing parliament to legislate before Article 50 could be invoked.

Catherine Baksi@legalhackette

Gina Miller vows to fight on after High Court dismisses her legal challenge to the prime minidter’s decidion to suspend parliament.

Embedded video

See Catherine Baksi’s other Tweets

The defeat comes just days after a cross-party group of MPs and peers lost a similar legal challenge in the Scottish courts. Lord Doherty, sitting in the Court of Session in Edinburgh, ruled that Boris’ decision was one for voters and politicians, and not the courts.

cont’d

https://www.legalcheek.com/2019/09/gina-miller-loses-high-court-bid-to-stop-boris-johnson-suspending-parliament/


Global warming farce revealed in an article carefully worded in the title as to NOT to say such – it’s all about the Nitro

September 8, 2019

Fake alarmists

climate hoaxers

 

Image result for nitrogen sources in Earth’s surface environment

Image result for nitrogen sources in Earth’s surface environment

 

Convergent evidence for widespread rock nitrogen sources in Earth’s surface environment

See all authors and affiliations

Science  06 Apr 2018:
Vol. 360, Issue 6384, pp. 58-62
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4399

Freed from a rocky embrace

Nitrogen availability is a central controller of terrestrial plant growth and, thereby, of the carbon cycle and global climate change. It has been widely assumed that the atmosphere is the main source of terrestrial nitrogen input. Surprisingly, Houlton et al. now show that bedrock is just as large a nitrogen source across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment. They used three diverse and largely independent assessments of the nitrogen mobility and reactivity of rocks in the surface environment. These approaches yielded convergent estimates pointing to the equal importance of the atmosphere and bedrock as nitrogen sources.

Science, this issue p. 58

Abstract

Nitrogen availability is a pivotal control on terrestrial carbon sequestration and global climate change. Historical and contemporary views assume that nitrogen enters Earth’s land-surface ecosystems from the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that bedrock is a nitrogen source that rivals atmospheric nitrogen inputs across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment. Evidence drawn from the planet’s nitrogen balance, geochemical proxies, and our spatial weathering model reveal that ~19 to 31 teragrams of nitrogen are mobilized from near-surface rocks annually. About 11 to 18 teragrams of this nitrogen are chemically weathered in situ, thereby increasing the unmanaged (preindustrial) terrestrial nitrogen balance from 8 to 26%. These findings provide a global perspective to reconcile Earth’s nitrogen budget, with implications for nutrient-driven controls over the terrestrial carbon sink.

Nitrogen (N) availability controls many aspects of ecosystem structure and function on land and in the sea (12). This includes strong, N-driven effects on Earth’s climate system and the size and sustainability of the terrestrial carbon (C) sink (3). Disagreements exist, however, over the biosphere’s N balance and how natural sources of N could alter terrestrial C uptake patterns in the future (4). Textbook paradigms and global computational models assume that ecosystems rely principally on the atmosphere for N (5), yet N accumulation rates in vegetation and soil can greatly exceed inputs from biological N fixation and N deposition (6). Recent evidence has raised questions about the role of rock N sources in resolving this discrepancy (7), with potentially widespread implications, given the massive amount of fixed N in the global rock reservoir (89).

We investigated rock N weathering rates in Earth’s surface environment, where terrestrial plants, soils, and microbes interact. Over billions of years of Earth history, N has accumulated in rocks, largely as a product of N fixation by aquatic and terrestrial organisms that becomes trapped in sedimentary basins; this N has been traced back to ancient biogeochemical processes, as opposed to contemporary N fixation by free-living microbes and root-associated symbionts. The amount of N varies widely among general rock types; sedimentary and metasedimentary lithologies occupying ~75% of Earth’s surface have concentrations of ~500 to 600 mg N kg−1 rock, whereas more spatially restricted igneous rocks often have much lower values (<100 mg N kg−1 rock) (911). Although N-rich sediments are globally widespread, such rock N concentrations do not translate directly to N inputs in Earth’s surface environment. Rather, rock N availability to terrestrial soils and vegetation is determined by denudation (physical plus chemical weathering), which varies as a general function of geochemistry, relief, tectonic uplift, climate, and biology (12).

Therefore, we examined the mobility and reactivity of rock N sources in Earth’s surface environment by means of three diverse and largely independent assessments: the planetary mass balance of N (case 1); global-scale denudation and chemical weathering proxy data (case 2); and a spatially explicit N weathering model that uses a statistical probability approach (case 3) (table S1). When combined, these approaches enable us to identify a hitherto unrecognized source of rock N that is ecologically important across Earth’s diverse environments and at the planetary scale.

Rock N weathering and the missing N in the planetary balance (case 1)

A classical approach for gaining insight into the magnitude of Earth’s biogeochemical transfers relies on the principle of mass and energy conservation. By accounting for N inputs and outputs among Earth system reservoirs, biogeochemists can draw coarse-scale inferences about N exchanges between the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere, which can then be vetted against evidence from more direct approaches. Whereas traditional “box and arrow” models have emphasized N transfers between land, air, and water systems (13), recent quantitative advances in Earth system modeling point to sustained transport of sedimentary marine N through the deep Earth (i.e., the mantle) (14). Considering the geochemical and biological fluxes together illuminates a discrepancy in the planetary N balance, which can be resolved by considering the return of rock N to the land-surface environment (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1 The preindustrial planetary nitrogen cycle.

Fluxes (arrows) in teragrams per year and reservoir sizes in teragrams. Maintenance of the atmospheric N reservoirs requires a transfer of N from crustal rocks to land because degassing fluxes from the crust and mantle are unable to balance N transfer from the ocean to the crust. *Mass required to balance the marine N burial term minus mantle and volcanic degassing. Nitrogen fixation estimates are from (4133647); preindustrial nitrogen deposition is from (37); denitrification, hydrologic N transport, and marine burial are from (1316); N transport to the mantle and volcanic N emissions are from (14); and N mass reservoirs are from (89). Section 1 of the supplementary materials provides further details.

Models of the planet’s N balance can be classed into two domains: (i) short-term models that emphasize N transformations and fluxes between the atmosphere, biosphere, and human activities (13) and (ii) longer-term models that consider N exchange between the atmosphere and mantle (15). Short-term perspectives emphasize how atmospheric N inputs are balanced by physical and microbial denitrification processes, which return N back to the atmosphere, and thereby ignore the return of N from rocks to land. Instead, these models treat marine sedimentary burial as a global N sink with an integrated flux of ~15 to 35 Tg N year−1 (1316).

However, over the longer term, the amount of N entering marine sediments should reasonably balance the amount of N leaving this reservoir. Tectonic uplift forces sediments to Earth’s surface over millions of years, a mass-transfer flux that is ultimately balanced by denudation. A fraction (<10%) of sedimentary N enters the mantle, where it can be stored or returned to the atmosphere via volcanic emissions [combined long-term average, ~1.5 Tg N year−1 (14)]. Hence, the evidence suggests that considerably more N is entering the rock N reservoir than can be accounted for by mantle exchange and volcanic emissions—what can explain this discrepancy?

One possibility involves non–steady-state conditions, wherein N accumulates in crustal rock and the mantle indefinitely. A simple calculation shows that this explanation is improbable: The atmospheric N2 reservoir would have completely vanished after <300 million years in this case (17). Although variations in N transfers over geological epochs (e.g., the Deccan Traps) could alter this calculation, for much of the Phanerozoic eon, marine organic matter burial (and hence organic N burial) is estimated to have fluctuated by less than a factor of 2 (18); thus, long-term volcanic degassing and mantle advection fluxes would need to increase by a factor of 20 to 40 over modern rates to compensate for sedimentary N burial. Such increases are unlikely given that sustained volcanism of this magnitude would lead to mass extinctions on land and severe ocean acidification (19).

Instead, the most parsimonious explanation centers on mass-balance closure in which the substantial transfer of N from rocks to the land surface is balanced by N burial rates in the seafloor (Fig. 1). This alternative fits with evidence for a stable atmospheric N2 reservoir over the Phanerozoic (2) and is aligned with Earth’s dynamic rock cycle, whereby sediments are lithified and tectonically uplifted to replenish losses from continental erosion (Fig. 1). Although humans have both purposely and inadvertently increased the terrestrial biosphere’s N balance (13), this modern-day perturbation is insubstantial vis-à-vis the cumulative N cycle transfers that have taken place over Earth history. Thus, the planetary-scale mass balance points to a nontrivial N weathering term from the continental rock reservoir of ~14 to 34 Tg N year−1 (equation S2).

Evidence for rock N denudation and weathering based on global proxies (case 2)

The planet’s N inventory provides coarse-scale evidence for substantial N weathering reactions in Earth’s surface environment, but this approach is more impressionistic than direct. Likewise, our extensive sampling efforts (11) and other global-scale syntheses (910) reveal widespread rock N sources in the near-surface environment (Fig. 2A); however, these results do not address global N weathering rates. We must place quantitative constraints on rock N denudation rates to draw more direct inferences about N chemical weathering inputs worldwide. This includes an analysis of the organic N that is bound in sedimentary rocks and the mineral N in silicates (largely as NH4+).

Fig. 2 Spatial patterns of rock N concentrations, weathering fluxes, and rock N contributions versus atmospheric sources of N.

(A) Spatially explicit estimates of surface (top 1 m) rock N concentrations. (B) Nitrogen chemical weathering fluxes derived from our globally calibrated model. (C) Percent increase in the preindustrial terrestrial N balance with rock N inputs (i.e., rock N weathering divided by the sum of atmospheric N inputs). The model points to highest absolute (B) and relative (C) rock N input fluxes in mountainous regions and at higher latitudes.

We first consider global-scale constraints on organic N denudation rates (physical plus chemical weathering) in sedimentary rock by combining data on organic C denudation rates with the C:N stoichiometry of sedimentary rock (11). Fossilized organic C denudation rates range between 100 and 143 Tg C year−1 (20) and show good agreement with estimates of global C burial in marine sediments [126 to 170 Tg C year−1 (2123)]. Dividing these fluxes by the average C:N ratio of sedimentary rock (8.13 by mass; supplementary materials) yields a N denudation flux between ~12 and 18 Tg N year−1 and a marine burial rate of ~16 to 21 Tg N year−1 (Table 1). These global N denudation values agree reasonably well with the planetary mass balance (discussed above), despite the very different data and techniques used in each case (table S1).

Table 1 Estimates of global rock nitrogen reservoirs and fluxes.

View this table:

A second approach derives from basin-scale sediment and solute fluxes and cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) denudation data, which collectively reflect the net movement of silicate rocks from the terrestrial to marine environment. This approach addresses the N in mineral form. Using sediment and solute budgets, Milliman and Farnsworth (24) estimate that ~23 Pg of total silicate-rock mass is delivered to the global oceans annually. Combined with endorheic basins (environments not in contact with the ocean), the global land-to-sink mass flux of silicates is roughly 28 Pg year−1. Applying our global mean N lithology concentration of 337 mg N kg−1 to the mass flux of silicates (supplementary materials) yields a N denudation flux of ~9 Tg N year−1 (Table 1) for silicate-bound N.

The results of this calculation are consistent with findings from catchment-scale CRN analysis, which suggest a global rock denudation flux of 28 Pg year−1 (25); however, grid-scale biases and extrapolation (26) of catchment-scale studies to Earth’s surface produce a broad range of estimates at the global scale (6 to 64 Pg year−1). On the basis of these end-members and the mean global N reservoir above, the silicate-rock N denudation flux may be as low as 2 and as high as 22 Tg N year−1. Importantly, such CRN-derived estimates do not consider the acceleration of erosion and denudation rates through modern land-use practices, which have increased erosion by a factor of 10 to 100 (27).

The chemical weathering quotient of the total N denudation fluxes can be estimated from fossilized organic matter (FOM) weathering and chemical depletion of silicates. Chemical weathering of FOM occurs more completely than for silicate minerals, because the former is susceptible to oxidation as opposed to kinetically constrained acid-hydrolysis reactions. Globally, chemical (oxidative) weathering of C in FOM varies between 40 and 100 Tg C year−1 (20), which translates to an organic N weathering flux of 5 to 12 Tg year−1 (Table 1 and supplementary materials). In contrast, chemical weathering of silicate rocks is less certain; it varies across parent material, climate, relief, and biological communities. Chemical depletion of silicates in bulk rocks has been shown to vary from 10 to 16% (2428), which would imply a mineral N weathering flux between 0.2 and 3.5 Tg year−1 [i.e., the range of N denudation estimates (2 to 22 Tg N year−1Table 1) multiplied by 0.1 to 0.16].

However, this lattermost calculation does not consider the differential chemical reactivity of elements in rock, which can be particularly rapid for certain rock-derived elements, including N (729). For example, chemical depletion of parent materials varies from virtually nil (e.g., zirconium and titanium) to relatively rapid (e.g., calcium) in common rock substrates and is biased by the presence of quartz, which is highly resistant to chemical weathering. Application of data from our field studies (29) in rapidly denuding mountains of the northern California Coast Ranges demonstrates a N chemical depletion of ~36 to 50%, which raises the silicate N weathering flux to 0.7 to 11 Tg N year−1 (range of weathering for catchment-scale CRN; Table 1).

These diverse geochemical proxies point to a global N denudation flux (organic plus mineral N) that varies between 14 and 40 Tg year−1, with a chemical N weathering fraction between ~6 and 23 Tg N year−1 (weathering range of FOM plus catchment-scale CRN; Table 1). These estimates confirm expectations from the planetary mass-balance results (case 1) and derive from actual proxies of physical and chemical weathering within a given set of assumptions; however, neither case 1 nor case 2 address spatial patterns and environmental controls on N weathering rates across Earth’s surface—issues that we addressed with our spatial global weathering model.

A probabilistic modeling approach to N weathering inputs worldwide (case 3)

We developed a data-driven modeling approach to spatially quantify global N weathering fluxes. Our model incorporates topographic, climatological, and lithological factors to estimate N denudation and chemical weathering rates, and it is calibrated using solute sodium (Na+) fluxes from 106 large river basins across Earth (30). It differs from previous approaches in that we rely on machine-learning algorithms, quantile regression, and Monte Carlo simulations, as opposed to the more classical mean-field parameterization schemes. We applied our model at 1-km2-grid scales, using mass-balance equations developed at hillslope to small basin scales (31). The conservation-of-mass equations used in our model take the formDN,Na = (QD)(ρ)([N, Na]rock)(1)Embedded Image(2)WNa = (DNa)(CDFNa)(3)WN = (DN)(fOM-N)(CDForg-N) + (DN)(1 – fOM-N)(CDFNa)(4)where DN,Na (mass × length−2 × time−1) is the element-specific (N or Na+) denudation flux, QD is the denudation rate (length × time−1), ρ is rock density (mass × length−3), and [N, Na]rock is the element-specific concentration in rock (mass × mass−1). Chemical depletion of Na+ from silicate rocks (CDFNa) is applied to both Na+ and N weathering functions (section 3 of the supplementary materials). W (mass × length−2 × time−1) is the element-specific (N or Na+) chemical weathering flux, and fOM-N (dimensionless) is the fraction of total rock N in organic forms.

Briefly, our model relies on Monte Carlo methods to estimate probability values for QD, [N,Na]rock, and CDFNa, with 10,000 simulations per parameter per cell. We calibrated the model by minimizing residuals between the modeled and empirically observed basin-scale Na+ training set (WNa). We estimated denudation (QD) by using a statistical model that incorporates catchment-scale CRN denudation rates (32) and digital topography. Rock N and Na+ concentrations ([N]rock and [Na]rock) were derived from our synthesis of measurements (11) and the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical database, respectively (33). We used a generalized additive model to estimate the chemical depletion fraction (CDFNa). The factors in the model include topographic relief, evapotranspiration, and excess water (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) (supplementary materials). We parameterized the CDF model by using 41 separate observations of soil Na+ depletion rates collected from the primary literature (section 3 of the supplementary materials).

These simplifying assumptions capture generalized patterns of chemical weathering rates as a function of climate and topographic relief, as calibrated with salt-corrected riverine Na+ fluxes to the ocean (tables S5 and S6). The model’s reliance on soil-based chemical depletion rates is limited in low-relief landscapes, in areas where subwatershed measurements may be decoupled from larger-scale fluxes, and in recently deglaciated terrains (28). Yet our simulations are consistent with general global observations of soil development and weathering patterns (figs. S3 and S4) and the anticipated switch from supply-limited to transport-limited kinetics in chemical weathering that has been observed for high-relief landscapes (34). Further, total rock denudation rates predicted by our model (46 to 61 Pg year−1) fall within the range of previous studies [20 to 64 Pg year−1 (25)].

At the global scale, our model simulates a large N denudation flux, consistent with cases 1 and 2. Specifically, we estimate that ~19 to 31 Tg N year−1 is denuded from the land-surface environment, with a chemical weathering flux of 11 to 18 Tg N year−1 (Table 1 and Fig. 2B). These results suggest that ~40 to 60% of rock N is chemically released to the terrestrial surface environment before export, consistent with field studies of mineral N depletion rates in mountainous areas (29); that is, ~50% of rock nitrogen is lost to physical erosion without entering terrestrial ecosystem pools in situ. We do not consider the fate of such physically eroded N in downslope ecosystems, which would likely increase the global N weathering flux in low-relief environments.

The scaled-up spatial N chemical weathering flux corresponds well with mean-field geochemical proxies (Table 1). Furthermore, our geospatial model indicates that as much as ~65% (7 to 12 Tg N year−1) of the total rock N chemical flux is derived from organic N, similar to the FOM-based estimates (5 to 12 Tg N year−1Table 1). These results appear reasonable given our limited understanding of differences in weathering processes among FOM and silicate rocks.

Across the land surface, rock N weathering is relatively widespread, with variations in N geochemistry, relief, and climate determining the magnitude of rock N inputs to terrestrial ecosystems (Fig. 2B). For example, large areas of Africa are devoid of N-rich bedrock and have relatively low relief and arid climate conditions, which together substantially limit N weathering fluxes. In contrast, some of the highest rock N inputs are estimated for the northern latitudes (Fig. 2B), where N-rich rocks and high-relief landscapes are more prevalent. At regional scales, mountainous regions with high uplift and adequate moisture—for example, the Himalaya and Andes mountains—are estimated to be large sources of N weathering inputs to land-surface environments, similar to the importance of these regions to global weathering rates and climate (35).

Context and implications

The body of evidence points to substantial rock N denudation and weathering rates at regional to global scales. Although each of our approaches is rooted in mass-balance principles, the diversity of techniques confers a reasonable degree of independence among the case studies (table S1); this adds robustness to the working conclusion of widespread rock N inputs in terrestrial surface ecosystems. Our geospatial model provides the most direct and geographically rich set of predictions, with the global range in fluxes largely driven by the calibration approach (basin- versus global-scale; supplementary materials). Results from the other case studies overlap with the spatial model, and we make conservative assumptions about rock N weathering rates in general (table S1). Future work could therefore cause the case studies to diverge, but with a tendency toward higher rather than lower overall rock N fluxes. We conclude that our findings extend previous plot-scale evidence for rock N weathering inputs in select ecosystems to a global biogeochemical paradigm, and that they indicate considerable limitations in contemporary models, which exclude the role of rock N sources in governing global-scale patterns of terrestrial N availability.

To further examine the importance of rock N weathering vis-à-vis the terrestrial N balance, we compare our geospatial model estimates with N fixation and deposition inputs to natural biomes (i.e., nonagrarian areas; Fig. 2C and Table 2). Isotopically constrained global terrestrial N fixation varies from 58 to 100 Tg N year−1 (36), with N deposition rates in preindustrial and modern nonagrarian environments varying from 11 to between 30 and 34 Tg N year−1, respectively (3738). Thus, although anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased global N inputs through deposition, nearly half of this input is in agricultural and urban landscapes where rock is not likely to be a substantial component of ecosystem N cycling (table S6).

Table 2 External nitrogen inputs from rock and atmospheric sources (teragrams per year).

Values in parentheses show the range of estimates, where available. Biome areas are from World Wildlife Fund ecoregions. Biome-specific N fixation estimates are from (4,4047). Atmospheric N deposition is derived for 1860 (preindustrial) and 1993 from (37) and for 2001 from (38). Global-scale estimates (bottom row) include N inputs from sources above and estimates from (36). N inputs to modern agrarian lands are not considered in these calculations; table S7 shows the agrarian influence.

View this table:

Our findings for rock N weathering rates increase the preindustrial terrestrial nitrogen budget by 8 to 26% (Table 2), with a modern-day rock N contribution to natural systems of 6 to 17% of total N inputs. These calculations point to rock inputs increasing the mean (midpoint) global N budget by 17 and 11% for preindustrial and modern periods, respectively, with more pronounced effects at the biome and regional scales.

Our results show that rock N inputs may be particularly important in montane ecosystems where denudation rates are rapid (Fig. 2C) and high-latitude ecosystems where high biological N fixation rates are temperature-limited (39). Spatially, our analysis suggests that rock N inputs can account for a substantial fraction of modern N inputs (including anthropogenic N deposition) to temperate and montane grasslands (8 to 32%), temperate and boreal forests (9 to 38%), tundra (23 to 51%), deserts (11 to 23%), and Mediterranean shrub- and woodlands (9 to 22%) (Table 2 and table S6). In contrast, rock N inputs constitute a substantially smaller fraction of N inputs to tropical grasslands (2 to 8%) and tropical forests (4 to 12%), where weathering is supply-limited and N fixation rates are naturally high.

Where N weathering occurs deep beneath the soil and regolith, some or all of the N may be released to groundwater and transported to fluvial systems (4042). Under this scenario, the ability of terrestrial plant communities to use deeply weathered N is dependent on plant-root proliferation into the deep subsurface (i.e., the depth of the critical zone). Woody plants can effectively penetrate deep regolith, with roots extending tens of meters below the terrestrial surface, in environments ranging from deserts to rainforests (43). Inferential work has pointed to the high mobility of rock N in ecosystems, which can be depleted from minerals at rates that exceed Na+ and K+ release from silicates (29). The role of microbes may be particularly important in this regard; so-called “rock-eating” fungi can accelerate weathering rates of minerals harboring biologically important nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), K+, and Ca2+ (4445).

Lastly, the availability of N singly and in combination with P profoundly limits terrestrial C storage, with nontrivial effects on global climate change (446). Our previous work demonstrated a doubling of ecosystem C storage among temperate conifer forests residing on N-rich bedrock (7). Our model indicates that rock N inputs could make up >29% of total N inputs to boreal forests, which could help to explain the high C uptake capacity observed for this biome and partially mitigate the mismatch of C and N budgets in Earth system models (3). Historically, weathering has been viewed as responsive to CO2 enrichment and climate change over deep geological time (millions of years) (35). The direct connections that we draw between tectonic uplift, N inputs, and weathering reactions therefore emphasize a role for rock-derived nutrients in affecting the 21st-century C cycle and climate system.

 

 

cont’d

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6384/58.full

 


Conspiracy’s, cover-ups and lies – Everyone covered up for Epstein – why? Why would MIT do it to?

September 8, 2019

Who were the two women?  Where were they from?

Image result for Signe Swenson mit

Former MIT media lab staffer says leadership made it clear Epstein’s donations were to be kept secret

Image result for Signe Swenson mit

(CNN)Signe Swenson, a former development associate and alumni coordinator at the MIT media lab, told CNN on Saturday that she repeatedly expressed concern about MIT’s ties to Jeffrey Epstein, but the lab’s leadership made it clear that his donations were to be kept secret.

Swenson — who first spoke to the New Yorker – says she first learned of Epstein’s ties to MIT when she had a business breakfast with Peter Cohen, the lab’s Director of Development and Strategy at the time, in early 2014.
Swenson said Cohen told her that the media lab’s director, Joi Ito, had a relationship with Epstein, that Epstein would be donating money to the lab, and that part of her job would involve assisting with those donations. Swenson said she told Cohen at the time that she knew Epstein was a “disqualified prospect” as a donor to MIT because of his state prostitution charges in Florida, but that Cohen did not seem to be surprised by the information [that Epstein was convicted on state prostitution charges].
Swenson said she ultimately took the job with the lab because it was a “dream job” for her. “I wanted to get closer to the amazing things coming out of the media lab and generally, MIT,” Swenson said.
Once she was working with the lab, Swenson recalls that the lab’s leadership made it clear that Epstein’s donations were to be kept under wraps.
Swenson said Cohen asked her how to take money from Epstein anonymously without having to report it to the university. Swenson said she told him there were ways to accept anonymous donations, but there was no way to do it without anyone at the university being made aware. Swenson said Ito popped into a meeting she was having with Cohen to remind them that it was a possibility to take small donations anonymously.
CNN has reached out to Cohen and Ito for comment, but has not yet heard back. The New Yorker reported that Cohen and Ito did not respond to repeated requests for comment.
The New Yorker updated its story on the allegations on Saturday stating that Ito wrote an internal email tendering his resignation: “After giving the matter a great deal of thought over the past several days and weeks, I think that it is best that I resign as director of the media lab and as a professor and employee of the Institute, effective immediately.”
Swenson said the notion of not naming Epstein became so commonplace that they started calling him ‘Voldemort.’
“It did become sort of an everyday thing, to the point where we would just refer to him as ‘Voldemort’ because he was ‘he who should not be named’ within the lab, Swenson said.

A visit from Epstein

During the summer of 2015, Swenson said she became alarmed when she saw that Epstein was being invited to an on-campus event and raised the issue with Cohen.
“I said …I think this is a terrible idea,” Swenson said. It felt like a legal liability simply … to knowingly bring a convicted pedophile to a college campus. And Peter agreed with me, raised the issue with Ito, and to my knowledge … it was decided that he would not be invited to this event.”
However, Swenson said that she was later told that because Epstein would not attend the on-campus event, he would be invited to an “off-the-record” visit to the media lab’s offices and meet with lab leadership there.
Swenson said that while Ito’s calendar was visible to everyone, staffers entered the meeting into his schedule without writing Epstein’s full name, adding that there was an explicit effort by Cohen to avoid creating a paper trail.
“We weren’t even supposed to email about the visit,” Swenson said.
When she raised concern about Epstein visiting their offices, Cohen ultimately told her that it was up to Ito and that they were “obligated to do this.”
“I obviously objected to the visit and I felt like all the women I worked with deserved to know that this was going to be happening, and we all agreed this was just so weird and uncomfortable and felt …wrong,” Swenson said.
Swenson said that Cohen told her that Epstein always travels with two female assistants, and that he made ‘air quotes’ around the word ‘assistants’ when he told her.
Swenson said the two women who arrived at the MIT media lab with Epstein during summer 2015 “looked like models.”
“They looked eastern European. They were dressed very well,” Swenson said, adding that she didn’t know how old they were, but that “they definitely were young.”
“We made it a point to be very nice to them,” Swenson said, even saying she and other female staffers went so far as to check the trash to see if the women might have left any notes asking for help.
Swenson said she was not able to speak to them privately, but that the two women “didn’t say very much” and when they were asked if they needed anything, they responded “something to the effect of ‘they’re fine.”

Swenson resigned in 2016

Swenson resigned from her position in 2016, telling CNN that she was not comfortable with Epstein’s connections to the lab.
cont’d
https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/08/us/epstein-donations-mit-media-lab-staffer/index.html

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